Are you Chickenpox aware?

Are you Chickenpox aware?

A SIMPLE GUIDE TO CHICKENPOX

This website is produced and funded by MSD. It is intended to provide general educational information and does not take the place of professional medical advice.

 
 

CHICKENPOX: THE BASICS1

The medical name for chickenpox is varicella because it is caused by the
varicella zoster (VZ) virus. It’s a highly infectious disease, which means it’s easy to catch from someone who already has chickenpox.

The good news is that, in most cases, once you’ve had it, your body is able to protect you from catching it again.

90 %

of adults in the UK are immune to chickenpox because they had the disease as a child.2

SPOTTING CHICKENPOX1,3

Other diseases can cause rashes, so you shouldn’t simply assume it’s chickenpox.

girl child

The illness usually starts with one to two days of fever, aches and pains and feeling out of sorts.

 
 
chicken pox sympthons - rash

Then, an itchy, spotty rash develops, turning from spots to blisters to scabs and crusts. How many spots appear varies from person to person; some people hardly have any, while others are covered head to toe.

 
 
chicken pox sympthons - blister

The infection is spread in the fluid found in chickenpox blisters and the droplets in the coughs or sneezes of someone with the infection.

 

Chickenpox is contagious from one to two days before the rash appears until all the blisters have scabbed over. This takes about five days.

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SPOTS, ITCHES AND TIME AT HOME1,4

In healthy children, chickenpox will not usually require medical treatment.

Your pharmacist can advise about medicines that may help relieve itching or reduce pain and discomfort, but things will usually clear on their own after a few days. If complications develop, your doctor will decide on the appropriate treatment.

If you need to book a doctor's appointment, tell the receptionist that your child has chickenpox. You may need to arrange a special appointment time to avoid infecting other patients.

Avoid using ibuprofen for chickenpox unless advised to do so by your doctor.
You also shouldn't give aspirin to children under 16.

hands

Don’t scratch!
It can cause skin infections or permanent scarring. If your child can’t stop scratching, keep their fingernails short and put gloves or socks on their hands, especially at night.

pharmacist image

Speak to your pharmacist about using cooling creams or gels to relieve itching.

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Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated. Try ice lollies if your child isn't drinking. A diet of soft, cold foods is best if chickenpox sores develop in the mouth.

More information about treating chickenpox can be found via the NHS Choices website:
www.nhs.uk/conditions/chickenpox

MSD does not endorse or recommend any content on this site but signposts this as a reputable source for additional information.

 

DON’T PASS IT ON!1

Because chickenpox is highly contagious, you should try to prevent spreading it by avoiding contact with others, particularly those at higher risk of complications such as pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems.

duck in a row

That means no school and no nursery until the last blister has scabbed over.

 

A little one with chickenpox will need around

five-days

so you may have to take time off work to look after them.1

 

If you are due to take a flight, you may not be allowed to fly until the last blister has scabbed over, so check with the airline. If you are not contagious but the rash is still present, you may need a doctor’s certificate.

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BE AWARE OF HIGH-RISK GROUPS1,4,5

Chickenpox is usually mild, but occasionally it can lead to serious complications, especially in adults, pregnant women, newborn babies and people with weakened immune systems.

People in these high-risk groups are more likely to experience complications such as secondary infections. For pregnant women, there is a small risk of the infection being passed to the unborn baby or causing birth defects.

It's important to seek medical advice if you are in one of these groups and think you may have chickenpox.

POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS:

 
infections
lung infections
pregnancy
 

If you develop a skin or lung infection, you will need treatment with antibiotics. In severe cases, you may need to be hospitalised.

For people at high risk of complications, doctors sometimes prescribe medications to shorten the duration of the infection and reduce the risk of complications. These should be given within 24 hours of the first appearance of the rash.

spots-itches

There may not always be signs of chickenpox complications. However, you should look out for swollen or painful skin, difficulty breathing or dehydration.

If you see any possible signs of complications, contact your GP or NHS 111 immediately.

Some people with chickenpox may develop shingles in later life. This can happen when the immune system is low (e.g. due to stress or certain medical conditions) and the chickenpox virus becomes reactivated. Though they are both caused by the same virus, chickenpox and shingles are different diseases.

 

WHEN TO CONTACT YOUR GP1,4

Chickenpox is usually mild and clears up in about a week. However, some people can become seriously ill and need to see a doctor.

Contact your GP or NHS 111 if:

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  • You're not sure if it's chickenpox
  • You get chickenpox as an adult as it can be more severe and last longer than in children
  • You're exposed to chickenpox while you're pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Your baby gets chickenpox when they're less than 4 weeks old
  • You're exposed to chickenpox and have a weakened immune system
  • You see signs of complications
  • The symptoms haven't started to improve after six days

You should also get advice if you are originally from a country near the equator and have been exposed to chickenpox, as you are less likely to have been exposed to the disease as a child. Chickenpox is more common in adults from these areas, and you may need treatment to stop you becoming seriously ill.

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TREATING AND PREVENTING CHICKENPOX1,4,6

 
hands
hands
 

For most children, chickenpox is mild and can be treated at home.

Chickenpox can also be prevented with a vaccination.

Chickenpox vaccination is not part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule but is provided on the NHS to certain individuals to help protect high-risk groups from chickenpox. The vaccine may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions.

For more information on chickenpox, speak to your GP, pharmacist or nurse.

References
  1. NHS. Chickenpox. 2018. Available at:
    https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/chickenpox/
    [accessed June 2018].
  2. NHS. Who should have the chickenpox vaccine? 2016. Available at:
    https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/when-is-chickenpox-vaccine-needed/
    [accessed May 2018].
  3. NHS. How do you catch chickenpox? 2015. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/2586.aspx
    [accessed May 2018].
  4. NHS Direct Wales. Chickenpox. 2017. Available at:
    http://www.nhsdirect.wales.nhs.uk/Encyclopaedia/c/article/chickenpox [accessed May 2018].
  5. NHS. What are the risks of chickenpox during pregnancy? 2016. Available at:
    https://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/1109.aspx?CategoryID=54&SubCategoryID=137
    [accessed May 2018].
  6. NHS. Chickenpox vaccine. 2016.
    Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/chickenpox-vaccine/ [accessed May 2018].
 
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Date of preparation: July 2018

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